Historical Background Puerto Ricans have migrated to the United States since the late nineteenth century. Mid-century, Puerto Rican revolutionaries met with others in New York to plan the independence and liberation of Puerto Rico from Spain. Inthe United States declared war on Spain and, as victor of the war, took Puerto Rico as a possession -- beginning the colonial relationship that persists to the present day.
The settlement of Puerto Rico began with the establishment of the Ortoiroid culture from the Orinoco region in South America. Some scholars suggest that their settlement dates back years.
They called it "Borinquen", "the great land of the valiant and noble Lord".
Their culture, however, remains part of that of contemporary Puerto Rico. Spanish rule — [ edit ] Beginning of colonization[ edit ] Christopher Columbusthe explorer credited with the discovery of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico was the historic first gateway to the discovery of Florida, which opened the door to the settlement of the southeastern United States.
They introduced Christianity, cattle, horses, sheep, the Spanish language and more to the land Florida that later became the United States of America.
This settlement occurred years before the Pilgrims landed. The Spanish settlers established the first repartimiento system, under which natives were distributed to Spanish officials to be used as slave labor. The laws prohibited the use of any form of punishment toward the indigenous people, regulated their work hours, pay, hygiene, and care, and ordered them to be catechized.
After drowning Salcedo, they kept watch over his body for three days to confirm his death. On September 26,before his arrival on the island, the first school of advanced studies was established by the bishop. Puerto Rico would also become the first ecclesiastical headquarters in the New World during the reign of Pope Leo X and the general headquarters of the Spanish Inquisition in the New World.
The Caribs, a raiding tribe of the Caribbean, attacked Spanish settlements along the banks of the Daguao and Macao rivers in and again in but each time they were repelled by Spanish firepower. However, these would not be the last attempts at control of Puerto Rico. The European powers quickly realized the potential of the newly discovered lands and attempted to gain control of them.
The school was established by Bishop Alonso Manso inin the area where the Cathedral of San Juan was to be constructed. The school was free of charge and the courses taught were Latin language, literature, history, science, art, philosophy, and theology.
Sparked by the possibility of immense wealth, many European powers made attempts to wrest control of the Americas from Spain in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Success in invasion varied, and ultimately all Spanish opponents failed to maintain permanent control of the island.
The only settlement that remained was the capital, San Juan. Spain, determined to defend its possession, began the fortification of the inlet of San Juan in the early 16th century. Inconstruction of the first fortifications began with La Fortaleza the Fortress near the entrance to San Juan Bay.
Clifford and his men met Spanish resistance while attempting to cross the San Antonio bridge from an area known today as Condado into the islet of San Juan.
Nonetheless, the English conquered the island and held it for several months. They were forced to abandon the island owing to an outbreak of dysentery among the troops.
The following year Spain sent soldiers, cannons, and a new governor, Alonso de Mercadoto rebuild the city of San Juan. The 17th and 18th centuries saw more attacks on the island. Inthe English assaulted the town of Arecibo, located on the north coast, west of San Juan, with no success.
Inthe French and Spanish declared war on the United Kingdom. The British attempted again to conquer the island, attacking San Juan with an invasion force of 7, troops and an armada consisting of 64 warships  under the command of General Ralph Abercromby.
A census conducted by Lt. The 19th century brought many changes to Puerto Rico, both political and social. While still swearing allegiance to the king, the Supreme Central Junta invited voting representatives from the colonies.The following discussion focuses on Puerto Rican history from the time of European settlement.
For treatment of the island in its regional context, see Latin America, history of, and West Indies, history of. The first inhabitants of Puerto Rico were hunter-gatherers who reached the island more than 1, years before the arrival of the Spanish.
November 1, an unseasonably hot afternoon in sleepy Washington, ashio-midori.com P.M. at his temporary residence in Blair House, President Harry Truman takes a nap. At P.M., two Puerto Rican natives approach from different directions. This book speaks about the indigenous survival in Puerto Rico and the transformation of the Taino into the Jibaro people of the island.
Today according to the census, 19, plus persons self indentify as Caribbean Native Americas on the island of Puerto Rico. The First Puerto Rican Flag. On September 23, , Puerto Ricans had reached their climax against the maltreatment and oppression of the Spaniards who governed Puerto Rico leading to a revolutionary movement in the town of Lares, the outcry known as “El grito de Lares” for the independence of Puerto Ricans from their Colonist occupants.
To support the U.S., Puerto Ricans began to attack Spanish-owned businesses and property. But “to their great shock and awe,” Guerra says the Americans did not keep their promises after they won the war, when Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the U.S. in the Treaty of Paris.
The U.S. ignored the new, democratically-elected local parliament of Puerto . The culture held in common by most Puerto Ricans is referred to as mainstream Puerto Rican culture, a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of Spain, and more specifically Andalusia and the Canary ashio-midori.com 90% of Puerto Ricans descend from .