It is found under the crust of earth trapped in rocks.
A project report on petroleum.
This project report will help you to learn about: Origin of Petroleum 2. Meaning of Petroleum 3. Types of Petroleum 4. Nature and Source Material 5. Migration and Accumulation of Petroleum and Gas 7.
Petroliferous Basins in India. Nearly all petroleum occurs in sediments, and these sediments are chiefly of marine origin.
Further no two petroleum are alike in composition which is chiefly due to variations in the primary source material or may be the result of subsequent environments and such factors like migration, catalysis, polymerization, pressure and temperature changes and metamorphism.
Their origin is within an anaerobic and reducing environment. The presence of porphyrins in some petroleum means that anaerobic condition developed early in the life of such petroleums, as porphyrins are rapidly oxidized and decomposed under aerobic conditions.
The low oxygen content of petroleums generally fewer than two percent by weight also indicates that they were formed in a reducing environment. The time required for forming petroleum and their deposition into pools is probably less than one million years.
The highest ratio of oil pool occurrence to volume of sediments occurs in the Pliocene series, which ended about one million years ago. Late Pliocene sandstones and rocks such as the Plio-Pleistocene rocks in the Quirequire field of eastern Venezuela contain commercial oil.
There are two theories of petroleum origin, viz. The later has only historical significance and most of them have been abandoned. The organic theory became the accepted theory about the turn of the century, as the carbon and hydrogen necessary for the formation of oil and gas were derived from early marine life forms living on the Earth.
The different reasons in favour of the organic origin are: Carbon and hydrogen are the primary constituents of organic material, both plant and animal. Moreover, the life processes of plants and animals continually produce carbon, hydrogen, and hydrocarbons. A major breakthrough occurred when it was discovered that hydrocarbons and related compounds occur in many living organisms and are deposited in the sediments with little or no change.
The porphyrins are found in the blood and chlorophylls and in the petroleum it occurs in the form of complex hydrocarbon compounds.
This explains that anaerobic conditions must have developed early in the formation process because porphyrins are easily and rapidly oxidized and decomposes under aerobic conditions.
Additionally, low oxygen content also implies a reducing environment. Thus there is a high probability that petroleum originates within an anaerobic and reducing environment.
The continuous chain of occurrence of nitrogen from living matter through organic matter in sediments of petroleum seems to offer a reasonable indication of the organic nature of the source material. It is believed that the optical activity in most petroleum is due to the presence of cholesterol C26H45OHwhich is found in both plants and animal matters.
The same types of hydrocarbons occur in both the fine grained sediments and in crude oil.UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS PETROLEUM ENGINEERING – DOWNSTREAM - Environmental Impacts Of The Oil Industry - Jacqueline Barboza Mariano, Emilio Lèbre La Rovere ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) transportation amount to over different chemicals, among which, of course, prevail.
The MBA programmed provides student with a fundamental knowledge of business and organizational functions and activities as well as an exposure to strategic thinking of management.
As a part of the curriculum we have prepared a “comprehensive project report” on petroleum industry. The. A specimen copy of the Table of Contents of the project report is given in Appendix 3. List of Tables – The list should use exactly the same captions as they appear above the tables in the text.
Sample Essay. The petroleum industry is one sector which has seen a continuous rise in demand over the years.
The global demand for crude oil rose % from to and is speculated to go up nearly 37% up till the year , largely spurred by the transportation sector.
Prepare a feasibility report putting forward a business case for your company in respect of a hypothetical 50, square kilometre oil field located 50 kilometres off the coast of Africa.
JAIPURIA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT PROJECT REPORT ON PETROL INDUSTRY INTRODUCTION Petroleum industry in India Petroleum Industry Research is a very important aspect related to Petroleum industry all over the world.