Digital breast tomosynthesis DBT is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast.
Synopsis This article discusses recent developments in advanced derivative technologies associated with digital mammography. Digital breast tomosynthesis — its principles, development, and early clinical trials are reviewed. Contrast enhanced digital mammography and combined imaging systems with digital mammography and ultrasound are also discussed.
Although all these methods are currently research programs, they hold promise for improving cancer detection and characterization if early results are confirmed by clinical trials. While nearly all cancers will be apparent in fatty breasts, only half will be visible in extremely dense breast [ 1 ].
This results, at least in large part, from the masking or camouflaging of noncalcified cancers by surrounding dense tissue. The emphasis will be on digital breast tomosynthesis with secondary discussion of contrast-enhanced digital mammography and combined digital mammographic and ultrasound equipment.
It should be emphasized, as of this writing, all the aforementioned technologies are investigational in the United States and none are approved for clinical use by the Food and Drug Administration. The clinical application of these technologies, if any, will be determined by scientific investigation and regulatory approval.
Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Mammography Digital breast tomosynthesis mammography DBT is one technology being developed to improve detection and characterization of breast lesions especially in women with non-fatty breasts.
In this technique, multiple projection images are reconstructed allowing visual review of thin breast sections offering the potential to unmask cancers obscured by normal tissue located above and below the lesion.
DBT involves the acquisition of multiple projection exposures by a digital detector from a mammographic X-Ray source which moves over a limited arc angle [ 2 - 11 ]. These projection image data sets are reconstructed using specific algorithms. The clinical reader is presented with a series of images slices through the entire breast that are read at a workstation similar to review of a CT or MRI study.
Because each reconstructed slice may be as thin as 0. This should allow visualization detection and better characterization of non-calcified lesions in particular.
Technique The advent of digital mammography and computer reconstruction algorithms has allowed derivative technology to be developed including tomosynthesis. In conventional digital mammography, a compressed breast is exposed to ionizing radiation. Energy which passes through the breast is transformed into an electrical signal by a detector which produces the clinical image.
The x-ray tube is stationary, the breast is stationary, and the detector is stationary. The image that is produced in any one projection such as a CC or MLO view is a two-dimensional representation of three-dimensional space.
Each pixel is therefore an average of the information obtained through the full thickness of the breast. A three-dimensional depiction of the breast would be advantageous similar to three-dimensional depictions allowed by CT, MR, or ultrasound scanning. In digital breast tomosynthesis, the x-ray tube is moved through a limited arc angle while the breast is compressed and a series of exposures are obtained Illustration.
These individual exposures are only a fraction of the total dose used during conventional digital mammography.
The total dose used should be within FDA limits and is expected to be near or slightly above the routine mammographic dose if DBT becomes clinically approved. If there is a degree arc of movement and an exposure is taken every 3 degrees, there will be 15 individual exposures.
Typically, the projection data sets are reconstructed into very thin eg, 1 mm slices for radiologist review.Dobbins JT III, Godfrey DJ: Digital x-ray tomosynthesis: current state of the art and clinical potential. Physics in Medicine and Biology, RR, October Tomosynthesis, also digital tomosynthesis (DTS), is a method for performing high-resolution limited-angle tomography at radiation dose levels comparable with projectional ashio-midori.com has been studied for a variety of clinical applications, including vascular imaging, dental imaging, orthopedic imaging, mammographic imaging, .
Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a quasi-three-dimensional imaging technique that was developed to solve the principal limitation of mammography, namely the overlapping tissue effect. This issue in standard mammography (SM) leads to two main problems: low sensitivity (difficulty to detect lesions) and low specificity (non-negligible percentage of false positives).
Digital tomosynthesis is a radiographic technique that can produce an arbitrary number of section images of a patient from a single pass of the x-ray tube. It utilizes a conventional x-ray tube, a flat-panel detector, a computer-controlled tube mover, and special reconstruction algorithms to produce.
Abstract Digital x-ray tomosynthesis is a technique for producing slice images using conventional x-ray systems. It is a refinement of conventional geometric tomography, which has been known since the s.
This topical review on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is provided with the intent of describing the state of the art in terms of technology, results from recent clinical studies, advanced applications, and ongoing efforts to develop .