Chinese Embassies Rice Culture of China Chinese culture, boasting a lengthy history, is composed of numerous sub-cultures. For thousands of years, the Chinese have been diligently cultivating their land. Blood, sweat and tears have been shed over their soil in the pursuit of favorable harvests.
Rice appears to have been used by the Early Neolithic populations of Lijiacun and Yunchanyan in China. One was the use of cast iron tools and beasts of burden to pull plows, and the other was the large-scale harnessing of rivers and development of water conservation projects.
Sunshu Ao of the 6th century BC and Ximen Bao of the 5th century BC are two of the earliest hydraulic engineers from China, and their works were focused upon improving irrigation systems. During the Eastern Jin — and the Northern and Southern Dynasties —land-use became more intensive and efficient, rice was grown twice a year and cattle began to be used for plowing and fertilization.
Such large-scale internal migration was possible due to introduction of quick-ripening strains of rice from Vietnam suitable for multi-cropping.
India[ edit ] Paddy fields prior to planting in Andhra PradeshIndia India has the largest paddy output in the world and is also the fourth largest exporter of rice in the world.
In India, West Bengal is the largest rice producing state. Paddy is cultivated at least twice a year in most parts of India, the two seasons being known as Rabi and Kharif respectively.
The former cultivation is dependent on irrigation, while the latter depends on Monsoon. The paddy cultivation plays a major role in socio-cultural life of rural India.
Kaveri delta region of Thanjavur is historically known as the rice bowl of Tamil Nadu and Kuttanadu is called the rice bowl of Kerala. Indonesia[ edit ] Water buffalos were formerly used to plough muddy paddy fields in Indonesia although the use of mechanised methods, such as small powered ploughs, has become much more common in recent years.
Rice production in Indonesia Prime Javanese paddy yields roughly 6 metric tons of unmilled rice 2. When irrigation is available, rice farmers typically plant Green Revolution rice varieties allowing three growing seasons per year.
Since fertilizer and pesticide are relatively expensive inputs, farmers typically plant seeds in a very small plot. Rice harvesting in Central Java is often performed not by owners or sharecroppers of paddy, but rather by itinerant middlemen, whose small firms specialize in harvesting, transport, milling, and distribution to markets.
The fertile volcanic soil of much of the Indonesian archipelago —and particularly the islands of Java and Bali —has made rice a central dietary staple. Steep terrain on Bali resulted in an intricate cooperation systems, locally called subakto manage water storage and drainage for rice terraces.
Japan[ edit ] Paddy field scarecrows in Japan The acidic soil conditions common in Japan due to volcanic eruptions have made the paddy field the most productive farming method.
Most of these places are somehow related to the paddy field and, in many cases, are based on the history of a particular location.
Today, many family names have ta as a component, a practice which can be largely attributed to a government edict in the early Meiji Period which required all citizens to have a family name.
Many chose a name based on some geographical feature associated with their residence or occupation, and as nearly three fourths of the population were farmers, many made family names using ta.
The government has subsidized rice production since the s, and favors protectionist policies regarding cheaper imported rice. Farmers assess paddy fields for any necessary repairs in February. Fields may be rebuilt, and bund breaches are repaired.
This work is carried out until mid-March, when warmer spring weather allows the farmer to buy or grow rice seedlings. They are transplanted usually by rice transplanter from the indoors into freshly flooded paddy fields in May. Farmers tend and weed their paddy fields through the summer until around the time of Chuseoka traditional holiday held on 15 August of the Lunar Calendar circa mid-September by Solar Calendar.
The harvest begins in October. Coordinating the harvest can be challenging because many Korean farmers have small paddy fields in a number of locations around their villages, and modern harvesting machines are sometimes shared between extended family members.
Farmers usually dry the harvested grains in the sun before bringing them to market. The majority of rice is related to irrigation 1, ha.
The choice of methods conditioning performance is determined by the variety and quality control of water. Criticized as being the cause of deforestation, "Tavy" is still widely practiced by farmers in Madagascar, who find a good compromise between climate risks, availability of labour and food security.
By extension, the "tanety" is also growing upland rice, carried out on the grassy slopes have been deforested for the operation of charcoal. It is a luxury ricer.
Malaysia[ edit ] Paddy field in the state of TerengganuMalaysia Paddy field are typically found on Peninsular Malaysiain most of its regions.Rice Field at Ancient Village in Yangshuo. Guangxi Province in Southern China is well known for its increbile landscape scenery..
The areas around the cities of Guilin and Yangshuo are exceptionally gorgeous!.
Within the scatter of karst limestone mountains, the winding Li and Yulong Rivers, and rice and vegetable gardens, are numerous . the pleasure of cats.
This is not an exhaustive history by any means.
Rather, I tried to indicate key moments that had an impact on the contemporary or future relations between the two nations. I originally introduced the term “orthorexia” in the article below, published in the October issue of Yoga Journal.
Some of the things I said in the article are no longer true of . Yahoo Lifestyle is your source for style, beauty, and wellness, including health, inspiring stories, and the latest fashion trends. Published: Mon, 5 Dec With the development of human society, we have a new word, urbanization.
It is the process of transforming a modern rural society which relies mainly on agriculture to a modern urban society which relies mainly on industry and service. The Chinese garden is a landscape garden style which has evolved over three thousand years. It includes both the vast gardens of the Chinese emperors and members of the imperial family, built for pleasure and to impress, and the more intimate gardens created by scholars, poets, former government officials, soldiers and merchants, made for reflection and escape from the outside world.