An overview of the consideration of platonic universals and the principles of platos theory

References and Further Reading 1. Individuals are singular objects.

An overview of the consideration of platonic universals and the principles of platos theory

Preliminaries If ethics is widely regarded as the most accessible branch of philosophy, it is so because many of its presuppositions are self-evident or trivial truths: At least for secularists, the attainment of these overall aims is thought to be a condition or prerequisite for a good life.

What we regard as a life worth living depends on the notion we have of our own nature and of the conditions of its fulfillment. This, in turn, is determined, at least in part, by the values and standards of the society we live in.

The attainment of these ends can also depend at least in part on external factors, such as health, material prosperity, social status, and even on good looks or sheer luck.

Although these presuppositions may appear to be self-evident, most of the time, human beings are aware of them only implicitly, because many individuals simply lead their lives in accordance with pre-established standards and values that are, under normal circumstances, not objects of reflection.

The historical Socrates was, of course, not the first to question the Greek way of life. Nevertheless, Plato continued to present his investigations as dialogues between Socrates and some partner or partners. And Plato preserved the dialogical form even in those of his late works where Socrates is replaced by a stand-in and where the didactic nature of the presentations is hard to reconcile with the pretense of live discussion.

But these didactic discourses continue to combine questions of ethical, political, social, or psychological importance with metaphysical, methodological and epistemological considerations, and it can be just as hard to assess the extent to which Plato agrees with the pronouncements of his speakers, as it is when the speaker is Socrates.

Furthermore, the fact that a certain problem or its solution is not mentioned in a dialogue does not mean that Plato was unaware of it.

What Were Plato's Beliefs? | ashio-midori.com

There is, therefore, no certainty concerning the question: It stands to reason, however, that he started with the short dialogues that question traditional virtues — courage, justice, moderation, piety.

It also stands to reason that Plato gradually widened the scope of his investigations, by reflecting not only on the social and political conditions of morality, but also on the logical, epistemological, and metaphysical presuppositions of a successful moral theory.

These theoretical reflections often take on a life of their own. The Parmenides, the Theaetetus, and the Sophist deal primarily or exclusively with epistemological and metaphysical problems of a quite general nature.

Nevertheless, as witnessed by the Philebus, the Statesman, the Timaeus, and the Laws, Plato never lost interest in the question of what conditions are necessary for a good human life.

Socrates explores the individual virtues through a discussion with persons who are either representatives of, or claim to be experts on, that virtue. Xenophon Memorabilia I, 10; In the Laches, he discusses courage with two renowned generals of the Peloponnesian war, Laches and Nicias.

Similarly, in the Charmides Socrates addresses—somewhat ironically—the nature of moderation with the two of the Thirty Tyrants, namely the then very young Charmides, an alleged model of modesty, and his guardian and intellectual mentor, Critias.

And in the Gorgias Socrates discusses the nature of rhetoric and its relation to virtue with the most prominent teacher of rhetoric among the sophists.

Key Concepts of the Philosophy of Plato | Owlcation

Finally, in the Meno the question how virtue is acquired is raised by Meno, a disciple of Gorgias, and an ambitious seeker of power, wealth, and fame.

Nor is such confidence unreasonable. These flaws vary greatly in kind and gravity: Socrates shows that enumerations of examples are not sufficient to capture the nature of the thing in question. Definitions that consist in the replacement of a given concept with a synonym are open to the same objections as the original definition.Plato’s theory of art as imitation of truth had a tremendous influence upon early literary critics and theorists during the Renaissance and 19 th century, many of whom often speculated as to the role and function of art as imitation of reality.

Plato's Ethics: An Overview First published Tue Sep 16, ; substantive revision Wed Dec 6, Like most other ancient philosophers, Plato maintains a virtue-based eudaemonistic conception of ethics.

Plato's Ethics: An Overview First published Tue Sep 16, ; substantive revision Wed Dec 6, Like most other ancient philosophers, Plato maintains a virtue-based eudaemonistic conception of ethics.

Apr 02,  · PLATOS’ ACCOUNT OF THE IMMORTAILITY OF THE SOUL AND THE THEORY OF THE FORMS IN THE PHAEDO Luke Stock PHIL X0 Professor Anna Wilks November 21, Word count: Plato gives an account of the relationship between his conception of the soul and the theory of the forms in the Socratic dialogue Phaedo.

Plato’s Theory of Forms, and the whole enterprise of the Republic, can be read as an attempt to find a solid grounding for moral values in rational principles. The Theory of Forms. The Theory of Forms maintains that two distinct levels of reality exist: the visible world of sights and sounds that we inhabit and the intelligible world of Forms that stands above the visible world and gives it being.

Plato's forms exist as universals, like the ideal form of an apple.

An overview of the consideration of platonic universals and the principles of platos theory

For Aristotle, both matter and form belong to the individual thing (hylomorphism). Aristotle's theory of universals is a classic solution to the problem of universals.

SparkNotes: Plato (c. – c. B.C.): Themes, Arguments, and Ideas