The name of the country means "Borderlands of the Danes" in reference to a political unit created during the sixth through ninth centuries. This period was marked by a slow progression of sovereignty among the Danes, a people who originated in Skaane today the southern part of Sweden but eventually were based in Jutland. By the ninth century the Danes had gained mastery of the area known today as Denmark and maintained control until the late medieval period, including parts of modern Sweden and Norway. In the late medieval period, Denmark was reduced in size to approximately the area of contemporary Denmark.
As the economy boomed, wages rose for most Americans and prices fell, resulting in a higher standard of living and a dramatic increase in consumer consumption. These changes were encouraged by the new mass media that included radio and motion pictures.
Booming economy and consumerism. The American economy's phenomenal growth rate during the '20s was led by the automobile industry. The number of cars on the road almost tripled between andstimulating the production of steel, rubber, plate glass, and other materials that went into making an automobile.
Henry Ford pioneered the two key developments that made this industry growth possible — standardization and mass production. Standardization meant making every car basically the same, which led to jokes that a customer could get a car in any color as long as it was black.
Mass production used standardized parts and division of labor on an assembly line introduced by Ford before the war to produce cars more quickly and efficiently. Both innovations had a dramatic impact on price: Ford also created new management techniques that became known as welfare capitalism.
These tactics, along with yellow dog contracts, through which employees agreed not to join a union, worked; union membership dropped by almost two million between An analysis of social changes in 1960s American industry produced thousands of consumer goods in the s, everything from automobiles to washing machines to electric razors.
Mass consumption was encouraged through a combination of advertising, which created a demand for a particular product, and installment buying, which enabled people to actually purchase the product.
The power of advertising to shape public attitudes had been demonstrated through the Committee on Public Information's use of media to marshal public support during World War I.
When peace came, ad agencies used newspapers, mass circulation magazines, and radio to effect consumption patterns. The power of advertising even influenced religion. Bruce Barton's bestseller, The Man Nobody Knows, portrayed Jesus Christ as a master salesman and the spread of Christianity as a successful advertising campaign.
Providing the opportunity to buy on credit was also a powerful marketing tool.
Businesses exhorted consumers to put a small amount down and pay off the balance in monthly installments, instead of saving money for an item and purchasing it with cash. As a result, Americans' savings rate dropped sharply in the '20s, and their personal debt rose. The new woman and minorities.
With a new look came new viewpoints and values, including a more open attitude toward premarital sex. Margaret Sanger, who had first promoted birth control before World War I as a means of sparing poor women from unwanted pregnancies, argued that the diaphragm gave women more sexual freedom. The new woman's mystique was exemplified by the heroines of F.
But the flapper represented only a small percentage of American women; for the overwhelming majority, life did not change that much. The sharp increase in the number of women in the labor force during World War I ended abruptly with the armistice.
Female employment grew slowly in the s, mostly in occupations traditionally identified with women — office and social work, teaching, nursing, and apparel manufacturing — and women who worked were usually single, divorced, or widowed.
Even with more women in the workplace, no progress was made on issues such as job discrimination or equal pay. At home, despite claims of creating increased leisure time, the myriad of electrical appliances on the market actually did little to alleviate the amount of housework women had to do.
After the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, women's political progress also slowed.
When given the vote, for example, women cast their ballot much the same way that men did, basing their decisions on class, regional, and ethnic loyalties rather than gender. Furthermore, although the Equal Rights Amendment was first introduced in Congress inand Nellie Ross became the first woman elected the governor of a state Wyoming in the following year, there were still parts of the country were women could not hold public office.
The black population of Chicago grew from less than 50, in to almost aby Blacks were not the only minority on the move in the s. Neither the Quota Act nor the National Origins Act limited immigration from countries in the Western Hemisphere, and nearlyMexicans entered the United States between and Commercial radio began in when Pittsburgh station KDKA broadcast the results of the presidential election.
As the number of homes with radios rapidly increased from 60, in to more than 10 million inthe airwaves became the medium over which Americans got their news and entertainment. The business of radio was simple and supported the growing consumer culture: Motion pictures also became a major entertainment industry during the '20s, and the leading stars of the time — Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Charlie Chaplin, Greta Garbo, and Rudolph Valentino — became popular icons.
Studios built theaters that resembled palaces, featuring mirrors, lush carpeting, and grand names such as the Rialto and the Ritz. Haysto control the content of films. The print media also expanded during the '20s. The exploits of celebrities were splashed across the pages of the new tabloid newspapers such as New York City's Daily News and Daily Mirror or were covered more sedately in Henry Luce's weekly newsmagazine Time Reader's Digest, founded inmade it easy to keep up with current events because its contents were condensed versions of articles from a variety of magazines.
The bestseller lists of the s featured novels that were destined to become classics, such as Sinclair Lewis's Main Streeta critique of small town life and society, and Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Risesthe story of expatriate Americans in France and Spain after World War I.Human rights movement refers to a nongovernmental social movement engaged in activism related to the issues of human rights.
The foundations of the global human rights movement involve resistance to: colonialism, imperialism, slavery, racism, apartheid, patriarchy, and oppression of indigenous peoples.
A key principle of the human rights movement is its appeal to universality: the idea that all human beings . The second Impact Analysis methodology, Social Impact Assessment, is designed as a flexible and adaptable tool for analyzing the direct and indirect effects of technological changes (12).
And given the dramatic changes in American culture, media, and politics since then, one must ask whether non-violent civil disobedience on behalf of climate policy in can be equated with civil disobedience by civil rights protesters in the s. New practices in human geography have been closely linked to parallel changes in the social sciences, in some of which the quantitative-positivist approach has come under attack.
The arguments were extended to the spatial-analysis approach with its geometric emphasis. America Movements in the s The most active period of social movement rhetoric in the 20th century was the s. This period roughly begins with a build-up from the Brown ashio-midori.com of Education of Topeka Supreme Court Decision of This desegregation decision began the Civil Rights movement.
A tide of economic and social change swept across the country in the s. Nicknames for the decade, such as “the Jazz Age” or “the Roaring Twenties,” convey something of the excitement and the changes in social conventions that were taking place at the time.