Studies have shown that attention significantly affects memory during the encoding phase, but hardly at all during recall. Thus, distractions or divided attention during initial learning may severely impair subsequent retrieval success, whereas distractions at the time of recall may slow down the process a little, but has little to no effect on its accuracy. Sensory memory is the shortest-term element of memory. It is the ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimuli have ended.
Overview[ edit ] The occurrence of a sustained physiological image of an object after its physical offset has been observed by many individuals throughout history. One of the earliest documented accounts of the phenomenon was by Aristotle who proposed that afterimages were involved in the experience of a dream.
They became the first to begin empirical studies on this phenomenon  which later became known as visible persistence. InGeorge Sperling began his classic partial-report experiments to confirm the existence of visual sensory memory and some of its characteristics including capacity and duration.
Sperling's experiments mainly tested the information pertaining to a stimulus, whereas others such as Coltheart performed directs tests of visual persistence. Informational persistence which is the basis behind iconic memory is thought to be the key contributor to visual short term memory as the precategorical sensory store.
The first is a relatively brief ms pre-categorical visual representation of the physical image created by the sensory system. This would be the "snapshot" of what the individual is looking at and perceiving. The second component is a longer-lasting memory store which represents a coded version of the visual image into post-categorical information.
This would be the "raw data" that is taken in and processed by the brain. A third component may also be considered which is neural persistence: Visible persistence[ edit ] Visible persistence is the phenomenal impression that a visual image remains present after its physical offset.
This can be considered a by-product of neural persistence. Visible persistence is more sensitive to the physical parameters of the stimulus than informational persistence which is reflected in its two key properties.: This means that the longer the physical stimulus is presented for, the faster the visual image decays in memory.
The duration of visible persistence is inversely related to stimulus luminance. When the luminance, or brightness of a stimulus is increased, the duration of visible persistence decreases.
This visible representation is subject to masking effects whereby the presentation of interfering stimulus during, or immediately after stimulus offset interferes with one's ability to remember the stimulus. The Duration of Stimulus Technique is one in which a probe stimulus auditory "click" is presented simultaneously with the onset, and on a separate trial, with the offset of a visual display.
The difference represents the duration of the visible store which was found to be approximately ms. If the duration is short enough, the participant will perceive a continuous image.
Similarly, the Moving Slit Technique is also based on the participant observing a continuous image. Only instead of flashing the entire stimulus on and off, only a very narrow portion or "slit" of the image is displayed.
When the slit is oscillated at the correct speed, a complete image is viewed. Neural basis[ edit ] Underlying visible persistence is neural persistence of the visual sensory pathway. A prolonged visual representation begins with activation of photoreceptors in the retina.
Although activation in both rods and cones has been found to persist beyond the physical offset of a stimulus, the rod system persists longer than cones. M cells transient cellsare active only during stimulus onset and stimulus offset. P cells sustained cellsshow continuous activity during stimulus onset, duration, and offset.
It is visual in nature, but not visible. As stimulus duration increases, so does the duration of the visual code. Due to the nature of informational persistence, unlike visible persistence, it is immune to masking effects. They originate from a common source in visual cortex Neural basis[ edit ] Although less research exists regarding the neural representation of informational persistence compared to visual persistence, new electrophysiological techniques have begun to reveal cortical areas involved.
Unlike visible persistence, informational persistence is thought to rely on higher-level visual areas beyond the visual cortex. The anterior superior temporal sulcus STSa part of the ventral streamwas found to be active in macaques during iconic memory tasks.
Iconic memory's role in change detection has been related to activation in the middle occipital gyrus MOG.
MOG activation was found to persist for approximately ms suggesting a possibility that iconic memory has a longer duration than what was currently thought. Iconic memory is also influenced by genetics and proteins produced in the brain.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF is a part of the neurotrophin family of nerve growth factors. One of iconic memory's key roles is involved with change detection of our visual environment which assists in the perception of motion.
In the primary visual cortex new stimuli do not erase information about previous stimuli. Instead the responses to the most recent stimulus contain about equal amounts of information about both this and the preceding stimulus.
The particular outcome depends on whether the two subsequent component images i. Change blindness[ edit ] The brief representation in iconic memory is thought to play a key role in the ability to detect change in a visual scene.
The phenomenon of change blindness has provided insight into the nature of the iconic memory store and its role in vision.Goldsmiths, University of London is in South East London. We offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees as well as teacher training (PGCE), Study .
Perkins Eastman joined the Office of the Mayor of New York City, City Council members, the School Construction Authority, and neighborhood residents recently to celebrate the groundbreaking of PS/IS K in East New York, New York. A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more that a few tenths of a second iconic memory A neural cener that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex is a TV anime series and adaptation of Shirow Masamune's Ghost in the Shell manga. It tells the story of Public Security Section 9, a covert counter-terrorist task force working for the Japanese government in a Post-Cyberpunk future.
Led by Major Motoko Kusanagi (a no-nonsense female cyborg), Section 9 specializes in the rising threat of cybercrime. Thanks Fiona, that makes me feel better. I’m a bit relived also in the poll, I voted none of the above.
And it looks as though quite a few people voted that way. It's your sensory memory that allows a perception such as a visual pattern, a sound, or a touch to linger for a brief moment after the stimulation is over. After that first flicker, the sensation is .